Towards a higher degree of independence of competition authorities: Lessons learned from Spain's institutional reform

In this article, Jaime Rodriguez-Toquero and Ivan Pico assess the ECJ's judgment Ormaetxea Garai and Lorenzo Almendros (19 October 2016) regarding the independence requirement of National Regulatory Authorities, in particular in the context of institutional reform. The judgment comes at a crucial time, considering the ECN+ initiative empowering NCAs to be more effective enforcers and the Commission's recent announcements for legislation in this area.

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