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How Much is Enough? Consideration of the PECE Criteria and Voluntary Efforts in Listing Decisions

November 2015

Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS or the Service) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (collectively, the Services) first began utilizing voluntary conservation agreements in 1994 for the stated purpose of creating "opportunities for Federal and non-Federal entities to stabilize and recover [candidate] species and their ecosystems before listing [under the Endangered Species Act (ESA or the Act)] becomes a high priority."

Read the full article by Douglas P. Wheeler, Ana Gutiérrez, Dale Ratliff on the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation's website www.rmmlf.org.


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