How Much is Enough? Consideration of the PECE Criteria and Voluntary Efforts in Listing Decisions

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service first began utilizing voluntary conservation agreements in 1994 for the stated purpose of creating "opportunities for Federal and non-Federal entities to stabilize and recover [candidate] species and their ecosystems before listing [under the Endangered Species Act] becomes a high priority."

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